The Israelites journey north to Moab
Num 21:10-12 In c.1407BC, thirty-eight years after the spies had been sent out from Kadesh (see Deuteronomy 2:14), the Israelites move north again towards Canaan (see 8 on Map 45).
They avoid Edom by travelling through the mountainous region to the east of the River Jordan past Zalmonah and Punon (meaning ‘precious stone’). They camp at Oboth and Iye Abarim (meaning ‘ruins of Abarim’) and cross the deep valley of the River Zered (the Wadi Hasa, which flows into the south east corner of the Dead Sea) to enter Moab.
Limestone gorge of the River Zered (Kerem bm)
Num 21:16-20 The Israelites continue across the dry limestone plateau to Beer (meaning ‘a well’) and travel via Mattanah, Nahaliel and Bamoth to “the valley of Moab where the top of Mt Pisgah looks over the desert” (Numbers 21:20). (A pisgah is a ridge or viewpoint crowning a hill – Mt Nebo, for instance, has a pisgah overlooking the Plains of Moab.)
The Mountains of Moab (reaching about 3000 feet / 900 m above sea level) form a high plateau running along the eastern side of the Dead Sea to the north of the kingdom of Edom, in modern-day Jordan. The King’s Highway – the main north-south trading route along which the Israelites travelled – kept to the high limestone plateau some 4300 feet / 1300 m above the Jordan Valley which lay to the west. To the east, the plateau is separated from the Arabian Desert by low, rolling hills.
The Wadi Mujib (River Arnon) cuts through the Mountains of Moab (Effi Schweizer)
The high plateau of Moab is now largely a desolate place, with many isolated remains of deserted villages dating from Roman and Byzantine times. Today, only a few nomadic Bedouin Arabs live in the area.
At the time of the Israelite conquest of Canaan (c.1400BC), the land of Moab was occupied by the Moabites, a group of pastoral nomads closely related to the Israelites as they were descended from Abraham’s nephew Lot (see Deuteronomy 2:9 & Genesis 19:30-38). The two peoples had a peaceful relationship until King Eglon of Moab attacked Jericho in c.1344BC and the Israelites became subject to Moab for eighteen years - until Ehud murdered King Eglon and defeated the Moabites (see Judges 3:12-30).
Remains of Dhiban, the capital of ancient Moab (B Porter)
About three hundred years later, during a famine, Elimelech and his family left Bethlehem in Judah to live in Moab. When his widowed wife Naomi eventually returned, she was accompanied by Ruth - her widowed Moabite daughter-in-law – who married Boaz and became the great grandmother of King David (see Ruth 1:1-22 & 4:15-17).
King David himself defeated the Moabites in c.1000BC and ordered them to make vast annual payments to him in ‘tribute’ as a conquered people (see 2 Samuel 8:2). After the death of King Ahab of Israel in 852 BC, King Mesha of Moab, rose up in rebellion but was soundly defeated (see 2 Kings 3:1-27). Shortly after, in the reign of King Jehoram of Judah (849-842 BC), the Moabites successfully asserted their independence and refused to pay the tribute (see 2 Kings 8:20-22). When King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon attacked Judah in 598 BC, Moabite forces assisted him in the overthrow of Jerusalem, which led to ten thousand captives being taken to Babylon.
The Moabites disappeared from the historical record during the time of the Persian Empire, when the land of Moab was conquered by invaders from northern Arabia. By the time Nehemiah returned to Jerusalem in 445 BC, it is these ‘Arabs’ who are among the neighbouring peoples who oppose the rebuilding of the city walls (see Nehemiah 4:7).
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